Blood is an important and lifesaving component of the body and hence its transfusion for various ailments is a landmark for improving health. The concept of providing safe and adequate blood is a contributory factor for the country’s National Health Care Policy and infrastructure. Timely transfusion of blood saves millions of lives, but unsafe transfusion practices puts millions of people at risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). Globally, more than 81 million units of blood are donated each year. More than 18 million units of blood are not screened for transfusion transmissible infections. With every unit of blood, there is a 1% chance of transfusion associated problems including transfusion transmitted diseases. An unsafe transfusion is very costly from both human and economic points of view(1). In that perspective the present study is aimed to assess the profile of blood donors.


The aim of this study was to determine the profile of donors as well as to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices among these donors, regarding various aspects of blood donation, who have visited the hospital blood bank of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. This exploratory study was conducted for the period of three months from August 2019 to October 2019.



Road traffic accidents have become a major public health issue all over the world. The problem is more pronounced in developing countries. The United Nations have included road safety in the sustainable development goals (SDG). Goal 3 of the 17 SDGs which deals with health has a target of reduction of traffic mortality to half by 2020. India enunciated a road safety policy in 2010. Government of West Bengal has launched a programme of “Safe Drive Save Life” on July 8, 2016. The WB Government has initiated various measures under education, engineering, enforcement and emergency care for reduction of road traffic accidents and mortality. A lead trauma hospital has been set up in Kolkata City. Kolkata Police have embarked upon a PPP model along with Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata for providing pre-hospital life support to trauma victims. In 2012 Medica has operationalized this PPP model. The trained Emergency Medical Technicians provide essential care at the scene of crash and during transportation of the injured patient to the nearest hospital. The Kolkata Accident Response and Medical Assistance (KARMA) Command Centre at Medica provides direction to the Emergency Medical Technicians ( EMT), liaises with the receiving hospital to activate their trauma care facility and monitor the movement of the ambulance. Providing minimal prehospital life support at the site of crash and during transportation to the appropriate hospital within 10 minutes goes a long way in reducing trauma mortality substantially.

The KARMA team had evacuated all patients where call was received except those who after receiving the first aid treatment refused transportation. In all cases the “Golden Period” could be achieved.

The KARMA Programme has shown results. In 2019 there was 9% less mortality from road accidents. The KARMA model is an effective model of Prehospital Trauma Life Support.

The article analysed the various components of the PPP model including the training component of the EMTs. The programme is compared with that of advanced countries particularly the paramedic based pre-hospital emergency care of the USA.

Key Words: KARMA, SDG, EMT, Accident, Crash, Golden hour, Golden period, Road Traffic, Ambulance Code, Golden Principle, Injuries, Life support, Prehospital



Background: Most of medical Colleges in India strive to retain their junior faculty, as private practice is a lucrative career path as compared to academic institution job. Generally, clinicians are not good man managers. The onus of maintaining the manpower inventory falls on institution administration. The future of an institution depends to a great extent on the degree to which it is successful in nurturing the career development of junior faculty. Faculty development programs and workshops will assist faculty in shaping careers and making them empowered in certain skills. Methodology: One full day workshop conducted in four sessions with trainers from Medical education department, Human resources department conducted on topics like sculpting academic teaching portfolio, requirements for promotion, performance management system, and research collaborations. Level 1, 2 of Kirkpatrick model of evaluation of effectiveness of workshops was done through feedback forms, tests. Level 3 & 4 assessment were done through performance records with College office, in-house web portals. Results:  Out of 136 participants 106 (78%) of them have started creating teaching portfolios in one year, 122 (90%) gained more confidence in large group teaching, 67 (50%) participated in assessing formative assessment sessions of Undergraduate students, 122 (90%) became more aware of the performance appraisal cycle and opportunities available under the institute, 65 faculty (48%) established research & funded grant collaborations, 108 (80%) initiated new pedagogic teaching techniques at their workplace. Conclusion: The study results revealed positive results for all the levels of Kirkpatrick model suggesting that the workshops were effective.


Keywords: Medical College Faculty training, PURE Portal, Training effectiveness, Teaching Portfolio, Kirkpatrick Model.


Health care standards that are influenced by the patient satisfaction is clinical outcomes and patient retention. Hence understanding the depth of patient satisfaction is a burning issue in the present trend which witness high competition in health care organisations. although various attempts were made to measure patient satisfaction, neither of the studies prove conclusive. Hence to explore the challenges in measuring the patient satisfaction, and providing the solution for quality health care services, the present article is written.
Objective: To explore evidence on the relationship between patient satisfaction and patient care services, its challenges and solution.
Design: systematic review
Research site: literature pertaining to the studies done in Primary and secondary care which includes hospitals and health care centres.
Result: The present study analyses evidence from 23 studies, out of which 11 studies were analysed based on the objectives of the present study. It was found that there is consistent positive association between the patient satisfaction and clinical effectiveness. There is also positive association between effective communication.
Conclusion: the literature when reviewed and analysed in the present study show the patient satisfaction is influenced by various factors like patient experience, clinical effectiveness. The article also highlights that the effective communication regarding the health care process should not be sidelined. Hence all these dimensions should be considered for patient satisfaction.
Key words: patient satisfaction, health care service, quality indicator for patient satisfaction.



Waiting for services is a curse, more so in the hospital.  Yet often we find patients waiting in so many areas in the hospital, starting from OPD, Pharmacy, diagnostics, admission/discharge, OT etc.  Simple in-house user friendly IT solutions were made for most important 5 areas of services of maximum waiting.  In the OPD, crowding was totally eliminated by beaming the room number and the token number in a large size screen just by click of a button by the consultant.  Access to scanned outpatient records to the physician resulted in total elimination of time for retrieval of records which otherwise used to take on an average 40 minutes.  This also resulted in substantial cost saving and reduced misfiling and loss of records.  In operation theatre, dynamic display of information regarding the patient flow inside the theatre has totally eliminated the patient relative’s apprehension.  Undue waiting for discharge process is a universal phenomenon and the bottleneck is mainly in discharge summary preparations.  Online summary preparations and verification at multiple level, reduced the discharge time significantly. Crowding for discharge bill payment was eliminated by providing a token number and messaging them on completion of the billing and insurance formalities.  In conclusion, areas where we witness maximum crowding, implementation of simple, user friendly problems driven solutions helped in improving the patient satisfaction.


India’s GDP was estimated to have increased 6.6 per cent in 2017-18 and was expected to grow 7.3 percentin 2018-19. With approximately 1.33 billion population, India has a huge rural urban population divide with almost 70% of the population living in rural area. With such a large proportion of population still residing in rural India, it faces a dual health care problem of communicable and non communicable diseases. Some of the reasons for increased morbidity In India are lack of access and poor quality of medical treatment and huge out of pocket expenditure ranged from a thousand rupees to crores of rupees. [1]
The divide can be seen in the data provided by the Indian Consumer 360 Survey which details that an Indian spends Rs.9,373 annually on medical expenses. The consumer living in rural area spent Rs. 6,371 annually while those living in Urban area spent Rs. 11,387 on medical expenses. In India, around 6% do not seek health care due to financial reasons, [2] and about 30% of the rural population did not avail any medical services and the reason given was financial constraint. Even in the WHO report it is highlighted that because of high OOP expenditure 3.2% of Indians fall below poverty line. [3]
Several steps have been taken by Government of India in accordance with the National Health Policy 2017 to ensure Universal Health Coverage mainly through health insurance and increasing government health expenditure as percentage of gross domestic product from current 1.15% to 2.5% by 2025. [4] Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) documented that in the year 2017 about 76% of Indians do not have a health insurance. The Government of India announced an Ayushman Bharat Yojana- National Health Protection Scheme (AB-NHPM) in the year 2018 that was rolled out across all states/UTs in all districts of the country. The aim of this programme is to providing a service to create a healthy, capable and content new India and it has two goals: 1. To creating a network of health and wellness infrastructure across the nation to deliver comprehensive primary healthcare services; 2. To provide health insurance cover to at least 40% of India's population which is deprived of secondary and tertiary care services. Under this scheme all types of medical treatments are being provided except organ transplantation for those eligible families. [5-7]
This scheme will cover poor below poverty line (BPL) families, deprived rural families and identified occupational category for urban families as per 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data. The Ayushman Bharat–National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM) will cover about 10 crore poor and vulnerable families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) providing coverage up to 5 lakhrupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.The benefit cover will also include pre and post-hospitalisation expenses and there will be no restriction on the size and age of the covered beneficiary family. The payment for medical treatment will be made on the basis of approved package rate, (as defined by the Government) basis. The package rates include all costs associated with treatment and transactions of money to the beneficiary is paperless and cashless. The beneficiaries can avail benefits in both public and empanelled private hospitals. The estimated cost for the scheme is about Rs.250 billion over 2018-19 and 2019-20 years for both centre and states. This scheme covers poor below poverty line (BPL) families, deprived rural families and identified occupational category for urban families as per 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data. This scheme covers over 10 crore families (approx. 50 crore citizens) across the country with a health insurance coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. [5-7]
Since Ayushmann Bharat, is flagship programme of Government of India and much publicized but how much detail has been translated to the ground level has not been documented. Also, the earlier scheme like RSBY had not taken off as expected. Hence, a study was conducted to assess general awareness about AB-PMJAY scheme among patients coming to Outpatient department at AIIMS, New Delhi.

Abstract: Incorporation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in addressing the current COVID-19 situations, has helped the world to identify, control, manage and contain the rapid transmission of disease. Tools such as mobile applications, GPD tracking systems and Drones were used to identify the COVID-19 infected cases and track their locations. Other tools enabled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) such as facial recognition systems, mass surveillance systems, automated vehicles and smart imaging tools have helped to identify infected individuals, thus containing the further spread of diseases. The current article had aimed at providing an overview on various information & communication technology tools used in prevention and management of COVID-19 pandemic.

Other Misc -1

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