Journal Vol. 29 No.1 [ Jan to June 2017 issue] 

Editorial and Content 


Journal file:
AIDS is a global health problem today. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances in preventing spread of HIV. Nurses and nursing students are an important component of health care delivery system. Nurses are largest deliverer of health care worldwide. The nursing staff plays a major role in looking after the diagnostic needs, therapeutic help and psychological support of the patients’ So this descriptive cross sectional study was conducted with an objective to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) about HIV/AIDS among final year B.Sc. and GNM nursing Students in College and school of nursing of a tertiary care teaching hospital. 
Data was collected using pre-designed and self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to all the students simultaneously during their regular morning classes. 
75.8% of GNM students were found to have a high level of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS compared to 75.3% B.Sc. nursing students. 69.3% of B.Sc. nursing students were found to have a positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS compared to 68.8% of GNM students. 61% of GNM students were found to have safe practices related to HIV/AIDS compared to 56.8% B.Sc. nursing students.
Recommendations: - 
Training programmes for nursing students should be organised intermittently to ensure healthy practices. There is a need to provide essential knowledge about HIV/AIDS to students from early age itself.  Implementation of specified, focussed, continued and strengthened Education can improve the knowledge attitudes and bring changes in practices.
Keywords:  HIV/AIDS, Nursing students, Knowledge, attitudes and practices.
Background: Handover is a process of transferring patient’s clinical data to another person and can occur at the time of shift changes of doctors and nurses working in Intensive care unit. Ineffective handover process can cause adverse patient outcome.  
Methods: Handover processes from doctor to doctor at the time of shift change were recorded in intensive care unit. They were evaluated using modified ISOBAR checklist. Data were collected for mentioned and missed out items in different components of checklist during handover procedures, time duration of handover procedures and distracters during handover procedures.
Results: Patient’s name and MRD number were not mentioned in all the 50 handover procedures. Problem of patient was mentioned in all handover procedures but, its time of occurrence and severity were mentioned in 35 (70%) and 30 (60%) handovers, respectively. Observation for vital parameters was missing in average of 49.6% handover procedures. Only 54% handover procedures mentioned about treatment to date. Physical examination findings, investigation findings, pending results, current diagnosis and about contact person for any problem were discussed in 42, 70, 22.7, 84 and 2% handover procedures, respectively. Overall, recommendations were missing in majority of handover procedures except recommendation for need of other tests for patients (80.9%). Handover procedure was completed in average of 69.6 seconds duration. Distractions were present in 16 (32%) handover procedures. Phone and people were the common distracters. Posing of questions by incoming resident doctor was noted in 18 (36%) handover procedures, only.
Conclusion: Clinical staff working in ICU of our hospital requires training for proper handover procedures. They should be made aware of standard communication checklist and encouraged to use that checklist during handover procedures.
Keywords: Handover procedure, Intensive Care Unit, ISOBAR, Shift change, doctors.
Due to its complex organizational nature, a hospital needs unique leadership to reach the intended goal. This requires special leadership training and development initiatives. This Literature review tries to answer six questions: 
1) What is leadership training and development? What is the current scenario on this front? 
2) Whom to give leadership training to? 
3) What to include in leadership training and development programs? 
4) Which teaching methodology is to be adopted for leadership training and development? 
5) What should be the duration of leadership training and development programs? And lastly 
6) How to evaluate the outcome of the leadership training and development programs? 
This review concludes that there is no firm answer depicted from the articles reviewed. Hence, leadership training and development need robust research to develop tomorrow’s hospital leaders as well as enhance leadership virtues of current hospital leaders. 
This review will guide hospital and healthcare industry leaders, hospital administrators and academicians in order to develop current and future leaders to certain extent and to conduct research studies on this front.
Key words: Leadership training, Leadership development, Hospital leaders, Leadership in hospital industry.
Introduction: Outpatient services of a healthcare facility reflects the functioning of hospital In the process of patient care, often healthcare facilities face several problems like excessive waiting times for patients, lack of access to information, high costs of delivery and medical errors. Thus, Healthcare administrators think of identifying lacunae in the system by thorough study of existing processes in terms of work flow procedures and turnaround time studies. The detailed study helps in redefining; reengineering the existing processes and optimizes the operations without compromising on quality care to patients. 
Objectives: To study the workflow process and turnaround time of Cardiology department services. Identify waiting time of services along with value added and non-value added services and recommend fine refinements in existing procedures, if required. 
Methodology:  A descriptive study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital which provides services of various specialities to patients. Complete observation of work process flow, patient movements and turnaround time of cardiology services were observed. 
Study Outcomes: Study had successfully studied the work flow processes of the department. Turnaround time of cardiology services and associated waiting time was also computed. Areas needed fine refinements were noticed and suitable recommendations were made to management in order to promote comprehensive patient care. 
Cardiology Department, Healthcare, Workflow process, Turnaround Time  
Introduction: Along with the ability to control fire, the use of clothing (second skin) is the other important discovery that has modified human morphology. It is estimated that human beings started using clothing 75,000 + 45,000 years ago (1).
Linen plays an important role in establishing the hospitals image and infection control. It is imperative for the hospital to choose linen which helps achieve these objectives. It is also a cost centre and thus calls for choosing fabric which is durable and cost effective. 
Methodology: It was a concurrent study conducted at a tertiary care autonomous healthcare institute in North India. Data was collected from records such as the linen condemnation register and the “Daily Receiving of Linen” register for the duration of six months i.e. from January 2016 to June 2016. Data was collected to ascertain the life of two different types of fabric being used in the hospital to make and this was then used to compare cost implications of using these two types of linen. Informal interviews with end-users of these fabrics were taken to find out the satisfaction levels for the two fabrics. Data was compiled and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010.
Results: Two different types of fabrics namely Poplin and Terrycot were used in the hospital for making Kurta and Pyjama. It was observed that Kurta made of Terrycot was able to withstand 35.7 washes and Pyjama was able to withstand 46.1 whereas the Kurta and Pyjama made up of poplin were able to withstand only 18.6 and 19.3 washes respectively. The cost effective analysis revealed that the poplin kurta (patient kurta) costs the hospital Rs.10.64 per use and poplin pyjama (patient pyjama) costs the hospital Rs.9.30 per use. On the other hand, the cost of using Terrycot kurta and pyjama were Rs.7.28 per use and Rs.5.42 per use respectively. User satisfaction was taken by informal interview from the patient and staff and it was observed that satisfaction was more for Terrycot.  
Conclusion: The study concludes that the type of fabric being used for hospital linen plays an important role in cost containment and enhanced satisfaction of users. 
Key world: Linen, cost effectiveness, fabric durability, staff satisfaction.
Conflict of interest: None 
Source of support: Nil 
The waste produced in the course of health care activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. It is estimated that annually about 0.33 million tons of hospital waste is generated in India and, the waste generation rate ranges from 0.5 to 2.0 kg per bed per day. The major clinical man force in teaching hospitals after the Doctors or consultants are the Undergraduate and the Postgraduate students, who along with the consultants are responsible for generation of Biomedical Waste in the bargain of providing treatment to patients. Hence the knowledge and awareness of Biomedical Waste Management is of paramount importance amongst the students as they will be the future man force in the hospitals.
Data was collected using pre-designed and self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to all the students simultaneously during their regular theory classes. 
88% to 90% students knew the exact meaning of Biomedical Waste. 50% to 60% students knew about the storage and 40% to 50% knew about the disposal of Biomedical Waste. Only 12% were aware about new BMWM Rules’2016. 
Recommendations: -
This study reveals that there are some shortfalls in the knowledge of the students. Even though the topic of BMWM is included in the curriculum, there should be an essential need for better education to further improve the knowledge of BMWM by well designed seminars, programs, workshops and assessments.
Keywords:  Biomedical Waste Management, Medical, Dental, Students, Knowledge, Awareness.

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